John Bunyan’s Apology

The Author’s Apology for His Book
WHEN at the first I took my Pen in hand
Thus for to write; I did not understand
That I at all should make a little Book
In such a mode; Nay, I had undertook
To make another, which when almost done,         5
Before I was aware I this begun.
  And thus it was: I was writing of the Way
And Race of Saints, in this our Gospel-day,
Fell suddenly into an Allegory
About their Journey, and the way to Glory,         10
In more than twenty things which I set down:
This done, I twenty more had in my Crown,
And they again began to multiply,
Like sparks that from the coals of fire do fly.
Nay then, thought I, if that you breed so fast,         15
I’ll put you by yourselves, lest you at last
Should prove an infinitum, and eat out
The Book that I already am about.
  Well, so I did; but yet I did not think
To shew to all this World my Pen and Ink         20
In such a mode; I only thought to make
I knew not what: nor did I undertake
Thereby to please my Neighbor; no not I;
I did it mine own self to gratifie.
  Neither did I but vacant seasons spend         25
In this my Scribble; nor did I intend
But to divert myself in doing this
From worser thoughts which make me do amiss.
  Thus I set Pen to Paper with delight,
And quickly had my thoughts in black and white.         30
For having now my Method by the end,
Still as I pull’d, it came; and so I penn’d
It down, until it came at last to be
For length and breadth the bigness which you see.
  Well, when I had thus put mine ends together,         35
I shew’d them others, that I might see whether
They would condemn them, or them justifie;
And some said, Let them live; some, Let them die;
Some said, John, print it; others said, Not so:
Some said, It might do good; others said, No.         40
  Now was I in a straight, and did not see
Which was the best thing to be done by me:
At last I thought, Since you are thus divided,
I print it will, and so the case decided.
  For, thought I, some I see would have it done,         45
Though others in that Channel do not run.
To prove then who advised for the best,
Thus I thought fit to put it to the test.
  I further thought, if now I did deny
Those that would have it thus, to gratifie,         50
I did not know but hinder them I might
Of that which would to them be great delight.
  For those which were not for its coming forth
I said to them, Offend you I am loth,
Yet since your Brethren pleased with it be,         55
Forbear to judge till you do further see.
  If that thou wilt not read, let it alone;
Some love the meat, some love to pick the bone:
Yea, that I might them better palliate,
I did too with them thus Expostulate:         60
  May I not write in such a stile as this?
In such a method too, and yet not miss
Mine end, thy good? why may it not be done?
Dark Clouds bring Waters, when the bright bring none.
Yea, dark or bright, if they their Silver drops         65
Cause to descend, the Earth, by yielding Crops,
Gives praise to both, and carpeth not at either,
But treasures up the Fruit they yield together;
Yea, so commixes both, that in her Fruit
None can distinguish this from that: they suit         70
Her well, when hungry; but, if she be full,
She spues out both, and makes their blessings null.
  You see the ways the Fisher-man doth take
To catch the Fish; what Engines doth he make?
Behold how he engageth all his Wits,         75
Also his Snares, Lines, Angles, Hooks, and Nets.
Yet Fish there be, that neither Hook, nor Line,
Nor Snare, nor Net, nor Engine can make thine;
They must be grop’d for, and be tickled too,
Or they will not be catch’d, whate’er you do.         80
  How doth the Fowler seek to catch his Game
By divers means, all which one cannot name?
His Gun, his Nets, his Lime-twigs, Light, and Bell;
He creeps, he goes, he stands; yea who can tell
Of all his postures? Yet there’s none of these         85
Will make him master of what Fowls he please.
Yea, he must Pipe and Whistle to catch this;
Yet if he does so, that Bird he will miss.
  If that a Pearl may in a Toad’s head dwell,
And may be found too in an Oyster-shell;         90
If things that promise nothing do contain
What better is than Gold; who will disdain,
That have an inkling of it, there to look,
That they may find it? Now my little Book
(Though void of all those Paintings that may make         95
It with this or the other man to take)
Is not without those things that do excel
What do in brave, but empty notions dwell.
  Well, yet I am not fully satisfied,
That this your Book will stand, when soundly try’d.         100
  Why, what’s the matter? It is dark. What tho?
But it is feigned: What of that I tro?
Some men, by feigning words as dark as mine,
Make truth to spangle, and its rays to shine.
But they want solidness. Speak man thy mind.         105
They drowned the weak; Metaphors make us blind.
  Solidity indeed becomes the Pen
Of him that writeth things Divine to men;
But must I needs want solidness, because
By Metaphors I speak? Were not God’s Laws,         110
His Gospel-Laws, in olden time held forth
By Types, Shadows, and Metaphors? Yet loth
Will any sober man be to find fault
With them, lest he be found for to assault
The highest Wisdom. No, he rather stoops,         115
And seeks to find out what by Pins and Loops,
By Calves, and Sheep, by Heifers, and by Rams,
By Birds, and Herbs, and by the blood of Lambs,
God speaketh to him. And happy is he
That finds the light and grace that in them be.         120
  Be not too forward therefore to conclude
That I want solidness, that I am rude:
All things solid in shew not solid be;
All things in parables despise not we;
Lest things most hurtful lightly we receive,         125
And things that good are, of our souls bereave.
  My dark and cloudy words they do but hold
The Truth, as Cabinets inclose the Gold.
  The Prophets used much by Metaphors
To set forth Truth; yea, whoso considers         130
Christ, his Apostles too, shall plainly see,
That Truths to this day in such Mantles be.
  Am I afraid to say that Holy Writ,
Which for its Stile and Phrase puts down all Wit,
Is everywhere so full of all these things,         135
Dark Figures, Allegories? Yet there springs
From that same Book that lustre, and those rays
Of light, that turns our darkest nights to days.
  Come, let my Carper to his Life now look,
And find there darker lines than in my Book         140
He findeth any; Yea, and let him know,
That in his best things there are worse lines too.
  May we but stand before impartial men,
To his poor One I dare adventure Ten,
That they will take my meaning in these lines         145
Far better than his lies in Silver Shrines.
Come, Truth, although in Swaddling-clouts, I find,
Informs the Judgment, rectifies the Mind,
Pleases the Understanding, makes the Will
Submit; the Memory too it doth fill         150
With what doth our Imagination please;
Likewise it tends our troubles to appease.
  Sound words I know Timothy is to use,
And old Wive’s Fables he is to refuse;
But yet grave Paul him nowhere doth forbid         155
The use of Parables; in which lay hid
That Gold, those Pearls, and precious stones that were
Worth digging for, and that with greatest care.
  Let me add one word more. O man of God,
Art thou offended? Dost thou wish I had         160
Put forth my matter in another dress,
Or that I had in things been more express?
Three things let me propound, then I submit
To those that are my betters, as is fit.
  1. I find not that I am denied the use         165
Of this my method, so I no abuse
Put on the Words, Things, Readers; or be rude
In handling Figure or Similitude,
In application; but, all that I may,
Seek the advance of Truth this or that way.         170
Denied, did I say? Nay, I have leave,
(Example too, and that from them that have
God better pleased, by their words or ways,
Than any man that breatheth now a-days)
Thus to express my mind, thus to declare         175
Things unto thee, that excellentest are.
  2. I find that men (as high as Trees) will write
Dialogue-wise; yet no man doth them slight
For writing so; Indeed if they abuse
Truth, cursed be they, and the craft they use         180
To that intent; but yet let Truth be free
To make her sallies upon thee and me,
Which way it pleases God. For who knows how,
Better than he that taught us first to Plow,
To guide our Mind and Pens for his Design?         185
And he makes base things usher in Divine.
  3. I find that Holy Writ in many places
Hath semblance with this method, where the cases
Do call for one thing, to set forth another;
Use it I may then, and yet nothing smother         190
Truth’s golden Beams: nay, by this method may
Make it cast forth its rays as light as day.
  And now, before I do put up my Pen,
I’ll shew the profit of my Book, and then
Commit both thee and it unto that hand         195
That pulls the strong down, and makes weak ones stand.
  This Book it chalketh out before thine eyes
The man that seeks the everlasting Prize;
It shews you whence he comes, whither he goes,
What he leaves undone, also what he does;         200
It also shews you how he runs and runs,
Till he unto the Gate of Glory comes.
  It shews too, who set out for life amain,
As if the lasting Crown they would obtain;
Here also you may see the reason why         205
They lose their labour, and like Fools do die.
  This Book will make a Traveller of thee,
If by its Counsel thou wilt ruled be;
It will direct thee to the Holy Land,
If thou wilt its directions understand:         210
Yea, it will make the slothful active be;
The blind also delightful things to see.
  Art thou for something rare and profitable?
Wouldest thou see a Truth within a Fable?
Art thou forgetful? Wouldest thou remember         215
From New-year’s-day to the last of December?
Then read my Fancies, they will stick like Burrs,
And may be to the Helpless, Comforters.
  This Book is writ in such a Dialect
As may the minds of listless men affect:         220
It seems a novelty, and yet contains
Nothing but sound and honest Gospel strains.
  Would’st thou divert thyself from Melancholy?
Would’st thou be pleasant, yet be far from folly?
Would’st thou read Riddles, and their Explanation?         225
Or else be drowned in thy Contemplation?
Dost thou love picking meat? Or would’st thou see
A man i’ th’ Clouds, and hear him speak to thee?
Would’st thou be in a Dream, and yet not sleep?
Or would’st thou in a moment laugh and weep?         230
Wouldest thou lose thyself, and catch no harm,
And find thyself again without a charm?
Would’st read thyself, and read thou know’st not what,
And yet know whether thou art blest or not,
By reading the same lines? O then come hither,         235
And lay my Book, thy Head, and Heart together.